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Dr. Sam Hardy

Dr. Sam Hardy is a Research Associate at the Centre for Applied Archaeology at the University College London (UCL) Institute of Archaeology. Dr. Hardy earned a DPhil in Law Studies at the University of Sussex. His professional experience includes archaeological, historical and ethnographic work in Cyprus, Greece and Turkey, NGO work in the Netherlands, and teaching in the UK. He investigates the destruction of cultural and community property; the trade in illicit antiquities; the politics and ethics of cultural heritage work, including archaeological excavation in occupied and secessionist territories; and precarious labor in the cultural heritage industry. His work on the trade in illicit antiquities has focused on the looting and smuggling of cultural property during the Cyprus Conflict. He has traced the development of the trade in parallel with the conflict; identified the relationships between antiquities looting, organized crime and political violence; and examined the impact of policing, policy and clandestine rescue on the trade.